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Overcoming institutional distance: Expansion to base-of-the-pyramid markets

The paper assesses the international expansion of developed-country multinationals to base-of-the-pyramid markets to launch new-to-the-world product innovations. The case study, of Philips Lighting, uses an international-business framework on the transferability and development of capabilities during international expansion. Institutional distance limits transferability from developed-country markets to base-of-the-pyramid markets; heterogeneity limits transferability ...

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Crossing the bridge to poverty, with low-cost cars

Purpose – The purpose of this study is to examine which changes companies need to implement in their transactional marketing strategy to sell to the poor when launching a product innovation in low-income countries. Design/methodology/approach – The paper confronts the literature on the "bottom of the pyramid" with the diffusion ...

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